Radio broadcasts from abroad—such as the Voice of America, the BBC, and broadcasts from France, Germany, and the Vatican— were referred to by Soviet citizens as “voices.” The official Soviet line was that they were golos vraga (the voice of the enemy), but the broadcasts reached millions of Soviet citizens every day. By the late 1970s, Iranian and Saudi radio stations were also broadcasting into Soviet Central Asia and the Caucasus, where 40 million Soviet Muslims lived. The KGB spent a great deal of time and attention trying to block these stations through jamming, but with little success. The “voices” created a problem for the Soviet leadership, challenging the Communist Party’s monopoly on information.

Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence. . 2014.

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